Saturday, August 30, 2008
British india banknotes GEORGE VI notes
The Act of 1858, in transferring power from the Honourable East India Company to the Crown, established a new system of government. The Court of Directors, Court of Proprietors, and Board of Control were replaced by a Secretary of State for India (a cabinet minister of the British government), assisted by a Council, which he was required to consult, except in matters of urgency. Members of the Secretary of State's Council were at first appointed for life, later for ten years. A Viceroy & Governor General was to be appointed, normally for a five year term of office, and was to reside in India, and supreme authority in India was the Viceroy's. All executive orders and all legislation were made in the name of 'the Governor General in Council
The three longest established Provinces of British India were the Madras Presidency (established 1640), the Bombay Presidency (the Honourable East India Company's headquarters were at Bombay from 1687), and the Bengal Presidency (established 1690). To these were added: Ajmer-Merwara (ceded by Sindhia of Gwalior in 1818); Coorg (annexed 1834); the North-Western Provinces (established 1835 out of the Bengal Presidency, later renamed the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh; Punjab (established 1849); Nagpur Province (created 1853, merged into Central Provinces 1861); the Central Provinces (created 1861 from Nagpur Province and the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, renamed the Central Provinces and Berar 1903); Burma (lower Burma annexed 1852, made a province 1862, upper Burma added 1886, separated from British India 1937); Assam (separated from Bengal 1874); Andaman and Nicobar Islands (established as a province 1875); Baluchistan (organized into a province 1887); North-West Frontier Province (created 1901 out of districts of the Punjab Province); East Bengal (separated from Bengal 1905, but reintegrated 1912); Bihar and Orissa (separated from Bengal 1912, renamed Bihar 1935; Orissa (separated from Bihar 1935); Delhi (separated from Punjab 1912, when it became the capital of British India); Aden (separated from Bombay Presidency as a province of India, 1932, became Crown Colony of Aden, 1937); Sindh (separated from Bombay 1935); Panth-Piploda (new province, 1942).
There were seventeen remaining Provinces of British India at the time of partition and independence: Ajmer-Merwara-Kekri, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Baluchistan, Bengal Province, Bihar, Bombay Province, Central Provinces and Berar, Coorg, Delhi Province, Madras Province, North-West Frontier Province, Panth-Piploda, Orissa, Punjab, Sindh, and the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
Of these, three, Baluchistan, the North-West Frontier, and Sindh became parts of Pakistan, while two more, Bengal and Punjab, were partitioned between India and Pakistan, and the remainder became provinces of the Union of India.